Read the following texts about the Harvey Weinstein issue and in a coherently constructed piece of prose, analyse and compare the use of argument and persuasive language in print and visual media texts that present a point of view on the issue.
Go here to 2017 political cartoons
Photograph: fzant/Getty Images
The Opposition Leader at the time, Tony Abbott, had risen in parliament with a motion to have Peter Slipper removed as Speaker over crude and sexist texts Slipper had sent to an aide. Abbott stated that every day Gillard supported Slipper was “another day of shame for a government which should already have died of shame”. Gillard made statements in support of Slipper and linked Abbott’s motion to remarks made by Alan Jones in the then-recent Alan Jones shame controversy. Gillard said that “every day in every way” Abbott was sexist and misogynist. (Source: Wikipedia)
After Gillard’s speech went viral, the Macquarie Dictionary updated its definition of the term “misogyny“. Previously defined as a “hatred of women” by the Australian dictionary, misogyny now encompasses “entrenched prejudices of women.” Director of The Australian National Dictionary Centre in Canberra, Dr Laugesen said the broader definition has a long history, with the original Oxford English Dictionary defining misogyny as “hatred or dislike or prejudice against women” and examples dating back to the 19th century. (Source: Wikipedia)
The Redfern Park Speech was made on 10 December 1992 by Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating at Redfern Park in Redfern, New South Wales. The speech dealt with the challenges faced by Indigenous Australians.
In 2007, ABC Radio National listeners voted the speech as their third most “unforgettable speech”.
Excerpt from an Election Speech by John Howard Liberal/National coalition. Delivered at Sydney, NSW, October 28th, 2001
Ben Chifley (Australian PM) “The Light on the Hill” Speech June 12th 1949 ALP Conference
“Its time” – Gough Whitlam’s 1972 Election policy speech
Letter in support of gender equality – Tarang Chawla
ABC Splash: The Power of Speech has a playlist of speeches, some of which are Australian.
We are valuing life less in Australia – Tom Pirrone (April 2017)
On cultural pride, imposter syndrome, getting over my own racism and community radio -Bhakthi (Not sure if this is strictly a persuasive speech)
You need now to focus on delivering your speech. For this you will need cue cards with your speech reduced to dot points.
You will need to know your speech well – memorise it.
Practice delivering your speech to an audience so that you can incorporate moments to include:
non verbal communication: gesture, pauses, eye contact etc.
To see excellent use of cue cards in action, watch Dr Shashi Tharoor deliver his argument at the Oxford Union as to why Britain owes India reparations for their exploitation of the country during colonisation.
To analyse the bones of your speech, please read this Feedback for Persuasive Speech and find your feedback.
SPEECH & WRITTEN EXPLANATION
The text of your speech must be submitted to Canvas on Monday 4 September along with a 300 word written explanation, wherein you detail the decisions you made regarding the argument structure you adopted and the choice of language you employed and your reasons for doing so. You must refer to other speeches which have informed your decisions.
To help you in these decisions you should refer to at least one of the three speeches below – how did they help inform and inspire your choice of language and argument structure? When watching or reading these speeches you out to pay attention to how each speaker deals with:
Julia Gillard’s ‘Misogyny’ speech:
Read the transcript of Julia Gillard’s speech here.
Stan Grant’s ‘The Australian Dream is Rooted in Racism’ speech:
Read the transcript of Stan Grant’s speech here.
Andrew Denton’s “Assisted Dying” speech delivered at the National Press Club in 2016.
Read the transcript of Andrew Denton’s speech 2016-08-10_NATIONAL_PRESS_CLUB_-_FINAL.
You will be assessed using this Unit 4 English-Outcome 2 Persuasive Argument Assessment..
As you construct your argument, you will need to give due consideration to the following elements of persuasion:
Logos: the use of logic and reason through your use of things like facts, statistics, authorities to construct a valid argument
Pathos: the use of appeals to an audience’s emotions to engage and persuade them
Ethos: the presentation of your ethics – your character and credibility and how you wish your audience to see you in relation to the subject matter of your argument
Read the definitions and examples outlined on this website: https://pathosethoslogos.com/
It is important to understand the interplay between these methods. The use of a statistic alone is not inherently convincing. The context in which you present the statistic will determine how credible you appear and how your audience will receive and respond to the fact fits within the structure of your argument as a whole (will they be: convinced that the statistic reflects reality? Shocked and appalled by its implications? Moved and saddened by the fact? Impressed by the detail of your knowledge? Convinced that your argument it credible?)
Great speech writers understand this interplay and work hard to ensure that a speech will have maximum impact.
How do you persuade Pauline Hanson?
To test your understanding of these ideas, listen to George Brandis’s response to Pauline Hanson’s wearing burka in Parliament. This is no prepared speech – his response is spontaneous. He addresses Pauline Hanson, but given the nature of Parliament, his remarks have a much wider audience. Listen for the following:
- How does he present himself in relation to the issue and his position on it? (ethos)
- How does he use logic and reason (facts, statistics, authorities) to persuade? (logos)
- What emotional appeals does he make? (pathos)
Your task will be to write and deliver a written persuasive text in the form of a speech targeting your peers about an issue of your choice (the indigenous issue of ‘closing the gap’ will not be accommodated given that you have already been assessed on this material).
Approximate length: 800 – 900 words
This will be accompanied by a written statement of intention articulating your intentions and decisions in the writing of the task: content; structure; language.
Approximate length: 300 words
Duration: 5 minutes
Click on the following link for the assessment rubric:
You should keep abreast of current affairs or you can use the tailored issues in the MHS Lib Guide for Argument and Analysis
You will need to complete the following steps and meet the following deadlines:
- Choose an issue and have this approved by your teacher DUE: Monday 7 August
- Read widely and record your readings and observations in a reading record on your pink A3 sheets DUE: Monday 21 August
- Formulate your position and supporting arguments and submit these via this form for approval DUE Monday 28 August
- Write your speech and submit this via Canvas DUE Monday 4 September. You will need to deliver this during the week of Monday 4 September.
- ANALYSE THE PRESENTATION OF FACTS AND STATISTICS: WORD-LEVEL ANALYSIS
Your language analysis should focus on the authorial intention given the language used to present certain people, places and ideas.
EXPLAIN: How this aspect is presented. Why it is presented in this fashion. How this furthers the author’s main contention.
Take the following extract from an opinion article: “There are about 330 known Aboriginal languages, but researchers have found that only 13 are now spoken natively by children.”
How is language used to position the readers to interpret the statistic?
Of course the same statistic could be presented differently simply by altering the language slightly:
...researchers have found that up to 13 are spoken natively by children.
…researchers have found that as many as 13 are still spoken natively by children.
Be these alternatives as they may, remember that your task is not to speculate about alternative versions. Stick with the text at hand. What are you going to say about the author’s use of: “only 13 are now spoken natively by children.”
2. SHOW KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF TASK AND TEXTS
This sounds so simple that it could be argued that it is ‘a given’. Except it’s not. If you don’t understand the purpose of the task then your sentences will be devoid of understanding and analysis. Merely restating a question or a sentence from the text does not demonstrate understanding. That is why you need to use your own words to describe the main contentions.
Imagine a sentence as a receptacle for transporting understanding from you to your reader – think of it like a container on a freight train, if you will. Your purpose is to communicate your understanding of the task and in this case, analysis of the material studied; your sentences are the containers for this. If you leave a container empty it will communicates no understanding of either text or task. Even worse, given that it lacks intellectual weight, it will rattle along the tracks and draw attention to itself. Anyone looking into it will be disappointed given their expectations – this is a freight train after all. However, the container which is weighed down by knowledge and understanding is most welcome. A container that filled with knowledge and understanding delivers. You must be conscious of your purpose: Deliver. The. Goods.
3. RHETORIC ALONE WILL NOT WIN AN ARGUMENT.
Complete this simple quiz:
- When do you have to know what it is you are talking about?
a) Never b) Occasionally c) Frequently d) Always
The only answer should be d) Always. You need substance to your arguments. A lack of knowledge of your subject matter undermines everything you say.
He that will not reason is a bigot; he that cannot reason is a fool; and he that dares not reason is a slave.
While the content and production of these videos are American, the skills of analysis remain the same. Watch any of these videos which also include demonstrations then attempt to analyse the political cartoons associated with the issues for the SAC. If you do this in tandem with a classmate you will be enriching the experience and practice of your analytical skills even further.